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Clinical Trials Fuel the Promise of Plant-Derived Vaccines


Heat-stable plant-made (edible) vaccines are inexpensive to produce, can be administered orally, and could be utilized to enhance vaccine coverage in children, particularly in developing countries. Plant-made vaccines can deliver undegraded antigens to the enteric mucosal immune system. A number of clinical trials have produced encouraging results. This review summarizes plant-derived vaccines, the mucosal immune response, and the evidence regarding their use and efficacy.